From the Dawn of Veterinary Medicine to the One World One Medicine One Health Model: Some Historical, Philosophical, Anthropological, Legal and Bioethical Reflections

Mariano Martini, Joël Candau, Hicham Hicham Khabbache, Mohamed Zouhir, Flavio Tovani, Tania Simona Re, Angelo Ferrari, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi


This article outlines the historico-philosophical and bio-juridical foundations of the one world one medicine one health model introduced by Schwabe,  as an interdisciplinary approach to govern the public health challenges. Virchow and Osler stated that no barriers between human and veterinary medicine should exist. Globalization, savage human activities, climate changes, new eating habits and livestock developments, leading to zoonoses, make this message urgent. The unity of medicine dates back to the dawn of humanity: the centaur Chiron represents the union of human and veterinary medicine, subsequently separated in a mans logic of domination over nature. The birth of comparative anatomy, the Romanticism and the Darwinism have affirmed the intrinsic value of animals; ethology, zooanthropology and zoosemiotics have led to the awareness of what it is like being-in-the world as an animal, together with a gradual bio-juridical recognition. Collaborating between doctors and veterinarians is crucial for the contemporary challenges.

Key words: Zooanthropology - Veterinary medicine - Animals ethics - One world one medicine one health model

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