Constructing Clinical Science

Natale Gaspare De Santo, Carmela Bisaccia, Massimo Cirillo, Luca Salvatore De Santo, Gabriel Richet


Clinical Practice become Clinical Science in the Years 1720-1820. There were many Reasons for This Transformation. The Discoveries By Santorio Santorio, William Harvey, Marcello Malpighi, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, Lorenzo Bellini, Thomas Sydenham, Giovanni Maria Lancisi were perceived by the students who Asked for Change in the Medical Curriculum. In 1761 Morgagni Centered the Study of Diseases on Morbid Anatomy, a Way To Control at Autopsy the Validity of Diagnosis. J.P. Frank Who Worked on  Public Health  and John Locke who Supported a Method of Scientific Reasoning Based on Asking questions were also Instrumental for Changes. Hospitals, Formerly Hospices for The Poor,Became Places for Curing and Healing. Military Hospitals Represented Models to be Followed. In Vienna Marie Therese Inaugurated the Allegemein Krankenhaus in 1785. In Revolutionary France Fourcroy with the Law Frimaire an III,1794 gave a new Rationale. Medicine and Surgery Were Unified in the Curriculum. Basic sciences Were Introduced. Dissection Become Compulsory,Practical Teaching Become The Rule. But it Was  With John Hunter, Domenico Cotugno and P. Joseph Desault That the Great Advancement  Was Achieved. They Were Anatomist and Therefore The Made The Knowledge of Human Body The Core of Medical Curriculum. However Experimentations on Animals , as Well as Practical Beside Teaching at The Hospital Also Became Important. Through Their Work Hospitals and Universities Were Associated in a Common Goal.


Key words: Clinical science - Domenico Cotugno - P.J. Desault - John Hunter - Anatomy - Clinical teaching - Percussion - Auscultation - Morbid anatomy 

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